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CBSE Class 12 Physics Board, Chapter-wise and Prelim Sample Question papers


CBSE Class 11 and 12 is a stage where students transition from general education to discipline-based focus on curriculum. The current syllabus keeps in view the rigour and depth of disciplinary approach as well as the comprehension level of students.

The CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus ensures

  • Focus on basic understanding of the concepts .
  • Focus on the use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards.
  • the units of the subject are in a logical sequence and the concepts are properly placed with their linkage to ensure better learning.
  • Reduction of curriculum by removing overlapping of concepts/content within the subject and other subjects.
  • Promotion of process related skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of concepts.

CBSE Class 11 and 12 syllabus also ensures to

  • Build on the concepts developed at the secondary stage and provide firm foundation for advanced learning in the subject.
  • Expose the students to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications.
  • Evolve process-skills and tune the students to experiment, observe, manipulate, analyse, investigate and take decisions.
  • Promote problem solving, analytical and creative skillsets in the students
  • Develop competence on concepts in the students and make them understand and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.

Download free CBSE Class 12 Physics Question Papers by clicking below:

Previous Year CBSE Class 12 Physics Board Question papers

CBSE Class 12 Physics Chapter-wise Question papers

Previous Year CBSE Class 12 Pre-board Physics School Question papers

CBSE Class 12 Physics Sample Papers

CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus has nine units as follows:

First unit has two chapters

Electric Charges and Fields: Electric Charges and Conservation of charge. Coulomb's law-force between two point charges. Forces between multiple charges. Superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Study of electric field, electric field lines, electric field due to a point charge, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and thin spherical shell with field inside and outside.

Electrostatic Potential & Capacitance: Electric potential, electric potential due to a point charge, potential difference, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of an arrangement of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, bound charges and free charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, capacitors combinations both in series and parallel, energy stored in a capacitor, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates.

Second unit has a chapter on Electricity. It covers Electric current, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor; electrical resistance, linear and non-linear V-I characteristics, electrical energy and power, Ohm's law, electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors, and their colour code; parallel and series combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. It also covers internal resistance, emf and potential difference of a cell. Series and parallel combination of cells, metre bridge, Wheatstone bridge, Kirchhoff's laws and simple practical applications. Principle of Potentiometer and its usage in measuring potential difference and for comparing two cells EMF; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Third unit has two chapters.

The chapter Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism covers magnetic field concept, Oersted's experiment and application of Biot - Savart law to current carrying circular loop and its definition. Application of Ampere's law to infinitely long straight wire and its definition. Qualitative treatment of Straight and toroidal solenoids, force on a moving charge when they are in uniform magnetic and electric fields, elaboration on Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor when in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors. Ampere definition. Torque observed by a current loop when in uniform magnetic field. Current sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer and changing it to ammeter and voltmeter.

The Chapter Magnetism and Matter covers Current loop as a magnetic dipole. Magnetic dipole moment of current loop and of a revolving electron, magnetic field intensity along the axis and perpendicular to the axis due to a magnetic dipole i.e. bar magnet, torque in a uniform magnetic field on a magnetic dipole i.e bar magnet; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; magnetic field and magnetic elements of Earth.

Examples of Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances with their definitions. Factors affecting the strengths of Electromagnets with its definition, permanent magnets.

The fourth unit covers two chapters

The chapter on Electromagnetic Induction covers its definition; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Eddy currents, Lenz’s laws. Induction – Self and Mutual.

The chapter on Alternating currents covers its definition, its peak and RMS value, peak and RMS Value of voltage; impedance and reactance; Qualitative treatment of LC oscillations, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current, power factor, LCR series circuit.

Elaboration on AC generator and transformer.

Fifth unit covers one chapter

The chapter of Electromagnetic Waves covers basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, qualitative ideas on the transverse nature of Electromagnetic waves. Knowledge on Electromagnetic spectrum such as microwaves, radio waves, infrared, ultraviolet, visible, X-rays, gamma rays and basic facts about their uses.

Sixth unit has two chapters.

The chapter on ray Optics and Optical instruments covers Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, total internal reflection and its use cases, optical fibers, refraction of light, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker's formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism. It also covers on why the sky looks blue or the sun appears reddish during sunrise and sunset i.e scattering of light. Study of Microscopes ad astronomical telescopes and their magnifying powers.

The chapter on wave optics covers wave front and Huygen's principle, refraction and reflection of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Huygen's principle and proof of laws of reflection and refraction using it. Interference, Expression for fringe width and Young's double slit experiment, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, resolving power of astronomical telescope and microscope, polarisation, plane polarised light and its uses, Brewster's law and Polaroids.

Seventh unit covers Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter.

The chapter covers Photoelectric effect , Dual nature of radiation, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.

Matter waves-wave nature of particles, Conclusions of Davisson-Germer experiment without any experimental details, de-Broglie relation .

Unit Eighth covers two chapters of Atoms and Nuclei.

The chapter of Atom covers Rutherford's model of atom; Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Bohr model, hydrogen spectrum, energy levels.

The chapter of Nuclei covers size and composition nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

The ninth unit covers chapter on Electronic Devices.

The chapter covers semiconductor Electronics its materials, devices and simple circuits. Qualitative ideas only on Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators

Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.

For complete syllabus please refer to CBSE Class 12 Board Website

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