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ISC Class 12 Geography Previous Year Board Question Papers

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ISC Class 12 Geography

Geography as a field of Social Science concentrates on the occurrence of the Earth, the land, the features, the temperature and so on. Geography teaches a student the relationship between the people and their habitat and helps connecting students with space and place of the Earth. Geography connects and covers various sub disciplines such as Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Biology, Ecology, Anthropology, Economics, Politics and various other. Geography includes the study of River environment, Pollution management, Environmental Health, Waste management and Occupational health.

ISC Class 12 Geography has more of pure science elements than social science, hence students must study Geography in the same manner, by understanding the concepts and logics behind every explanation. Another important learning tip that students must follow is to make notes from each chapter so that at the time of revision students need not go through the entire chapter. Students must also practice previous year board question papers and sample question papers as they may find various repetitive questions. We at TestPaperz have aggregated many previous year board question papers, sample question papers and school prelim papers for the students to practice and analyze their strengths and weaknesses. These papers are free to download. Click below to download:

Previous Year ISC Class 12 Geography Board Exam Question papers

ISC Class 12 Geography has two parts. Paper I is the theory paper of 70 marks (3 hours) and Paper II is the practical and project work of 30 marks. The syllabus* includes:

Physical Environment

  • Locational setting - India: size and area. Importance of the location of India with reference to the Northern and Western frontiers and the Indian Ocean Rim. Comparison with China and Australia.

  • Structure of India – Geological formation, major physiographic divisions and their characteristics, relief and drainage.

  • Climate - Factors affecting India’s climate. Factors affecting temperature, Atmospheric pressure conditions during the year; origin and mechanism of the monsoon, Southern Oscillations, Jet streams; wind and rainfall distribution during the year; characteristics of the four main seasons - cool and dry, cool and wet, hot and dry, hot and wet, with reference to temperature distribution in north and south India, pressure, wind conditions – distribution of resultant rainfall; variability of rainfall, incidence of droughts and floods. Temperature and rainfall graphs of Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Leh, Jaisalmer, and Hyderabad.

  • Natural vegetation: Major vegetation types of India, their geographical distribution with reference to rainfall and temperature conditions – description of the important tree types and their adaptation to the climate. Area of Forest covered, importance of forests, use, misuse and potential both for exploitation and conservation of forest. Present forest policy.

Population and Human settlements

  • Population of India compared to six countries - China, USA, Australia, Russia, Canada and Brazil.

  • State level and National patterns of population distribution.

  • Pattern of population growth in the last three decades; implications for development.

  • Migration trends over the last 25 years.

  • Demographic attributes at National level - trends and patterns of Rural urban population, Age and sex composition, Literacy levels, Working and non- working population; implications for development.

  • Rural settlements –Number and Size of villages as per the latest census. Types and patterns in plains, hill areas and coastal locations.

  • Urban settlements – size of towns and classification as per the latest census. Study of population growth in Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai from1951 till the latest census.

Resources of India and their Utilisation

  • Need for environmental management vis-à- vis development.

  • Land resources: Land use pattern in India – size of land holdings, quality of cultivable land.

  • Water resources and types of irrigation.

  • Agriculture: Types, development and problems- Wet and dry farming, crop rotation and crop combination, intensity of cropping, problems of Indian agriculture; use of technology in agriculture. Diversifying Indian agriculture – importance of animal husbandry. Modern inputs, need for Green Revolution, change over from subsistence to commercial agriculture. Diversifying Indian agriculture – importance of animal husbandry.

  • Comparative study of: (i) Conditions of growth ((soil, rainfall requirements, crop seasons, temperature, secondary crops cultivated with them). (ii) World production and India’s position. (iii) Major producing States and their rank in India as producers of the following crops: Food grains, Commercial and Industrial crops. Importance of Orchard Farming and Market Gardening with reasons and trends in their development in recent years.

  • Fishing in India, Japan and Bangladesh.

  • Sources of Energy- Minerals and power resources, Conventional energy sources - fossil fuels and firewood, potential (Indian context) and limitations of each source, methods of harnessing and environmental consequences of their use, Non-conventional energy sources - types of non-conventional sources (bio- mass, wind, solar, hydel, ocean, nuclear, geothermal), potential (Indian context) and limitations of each source, methods of harnessing and their environmental consequences, need to promote non-conventional energy sources.

Infrastructural Resources (Development of Transport and Communication)

  • Railways, Roadways, Water transport (inland and coastal), Air transport, Pipelines - these modes of transport are to be studied with regard to – Location and state wise distribution of air, rail and road routes; location of waterways and pipelines; natural and economic factors that govern their distribution; density and growth. Patterns in India.

  • Ports, their location and advantage; major exports and imports of different ports. Nature and direction of trade from the ports. International trading patterns and products in the last five years.

  • Importance of communication in Rural development and its policy. Importance of infrastructure as key to the development of an industrial economy.


  • Study of the location and distribution of important industrial centres; a general comparison of disparities.

  • Minor and Major industrial regions – factors governing their growth.

  • Location, production and growth of the following industries: Agro based industries like Sugar, cotton textile and ready-made garments. Mineral based industries like Iron and steel, aluminum, cement, and transport equipment. Petrochemicals, including refineries and fertilizers.

  • Tourism industry: Details on the important natural and cultural tourist areas in India. Special features and level of development of the tourist areas. Impact on environment and local economy due to tourism in these areas. Tourist flows to these areas.

Regional Economic Development (Case studies)

Case studies will be introduced by a brief understanding of the meaning of development, multilevel planning and planning regions. These case studies will be undertaken with reference to the disadvantages and advantages that have accrued to the people and area – this will cover their geographical location, developmental history, resource base, agriculture and industrial activities, present trends of population, occupations, and issues of development.

  • Area development in Chattisgarh region – mining, silk industry and farming.

  • Electronics industry in Bengaluru– reasons for its development, extent, national and international linkages and problems.

  • Growth of Haldia port, its hinterland and industries.

Map Work

A question on map work will be set to identify, label and locate any of the following items studied in above topics: Locational setting of India, Mountains, Peaks, Plains, Plateaus, Peninsula, Lakes, Waterbodies, Passes, Rivers, Climate of India, Natural Vegetation, Population, Resources of India, Agriculture, Minerals, Power resources, Industries, Transport, Ports, Hinterland, Case studies.

*For detailed and exact syllabus please refer to CISCE Website

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